Pedestrian Safety Toolbox
Below are items to consider for inclusion in the PAG ‘Pedestrian Safety Toolbox’. The items are broken up into three distinct focal areas: Evaluation, Engineering, and Implementation. Primarily derived from national best practices, the resources below will help PAG member jurisdictions identify the types and locations of safety concerns, identify mitigation strategies through a variety of options, and provide a guide to implementing prioritized strategies.
Also included below is a list of best practices from other regional efforts and ongoing safety efforts PAG currently offers or is involved with.
The resources available here are for information purposes only. These materials do not represent regionally adopted policies. For more information on regionally adopted plans please refer to the Regional Pedestrian Plan.
Feedback and questions about this site, or recommendations of additional materials to include can be made to firstname.lastname@example.org
Traffic Safety Facts sheet for pedestrians: Ten page sheet presents 2013 data on pedestrian incidents nationwide and broken down by age, gender, time of day, lighting, point of impact, alcohol, State among other factors.
NHTSA - http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/812124.pdf
Crash Facts: Includes links to Traffic Safety Facts like the above mentioned pedestrian sheet in addition to bicyclist safety, “Not in Roadway” crashes and traffic safety facts.
FHWA - http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/crash_facts/
Data-Driven Safety Analysis: Summarizes types Data-Driven Safety Analysis, the benefits of these and a review of the current state of practice. The site also provides additional resource links to case studies, tools, and related WebPages.
FHWA - https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/everydaycounts/edc-3/analysis.cfm
ITE Recommended Practice: “Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: a context sensitive approach” by the Institute of Transportation Engineers (2010). Contains detailed planning and design guides for various contexts and conditions. Endorsed by FHWA: (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/guidance/design_guidance/design_flexibility.cfm)
ITE - http://library.ite.org/pub/e1cff43c-2354-d714-51d9-d82b39d4dbad
Safety Effects of Marked Versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations: The purpose of this FHWA study was to determine whether marked crosswalks at uncontrolled locations are safer than unmarked crosswalks under various traffic and roadway conditions. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/04100/04100.pdf
ROAD SAFETY AUDITS (RSAs):
Federal homepage for RSAs: Includes summary of what a RSA is, how they are different from traditional safety reviews, benefits, legal concerns, guidance to complete a RSA, training materials and other resources.
Pedestrian RSAs: Pedestrian specific RSA information including guidelines, prompt lists and examples.
FHWA - http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/tools_solve/ped_rsa/
Guidelines and Prompts: “Pedestrian Road Safety Audit Guidelines and Prompt List,” USDOT, FHWA 2007. Contains a Knowledge Base section with basic concepts of RSA and a Field Manual section specific to pedestrian safety.
FWHA - http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/cms/downloads/PedRSA.reduced.pdf
Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT): Crash typing software that uses incident database for analysis of crashes between motor vehicles and pedestrians or bicyclists.
FHWA - http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/pbcat_us/
RSA Data Program: Toolbox with management, analysis, collection and research tools for developing a new or strengthening an existing roadway safety data program. The site also includes technology transfer links for training, webinars, technical assistance and more.
FHWA - http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/rsdp/
Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM): A decision support tool in the form of a suite of analysis tools to evaluate the safety and operation effects of geometric design decisions on highways. The six evaluation modules include: Crash Prediction, Design Consistency, Intersection Review, Policy Review, Traffic Analysis, and Driver/Vehicle.
FHWA - https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/research/tfhrc/projects/safety/comprehensive/ihsdm/index.cfm
Safety Analyst Overview: A suite of tools that assist in the decision making process by identifying and managing network-wide, site specific improvements. Includes cost benefit calculations to identify highest potential for safety improvement. (PAG is a participating partner in the Arizona portion of the Safety Analyst pilot project)
Ongoing Regional Efforts
PAG and the RTA partner with our member jurisdictions to focus on safety, bicyclist and pedestrian safety in particular. Below is a list of some of these efforts:
- PAG Road Safety Assessment (RSA) Program – The program is a resource for local and tribal agencies in the PAG region which aims to reduce fatalities and injuries for all modes on PAG area roads through the identification of design practices and countermeasures to improve safety. The RSA Program provides free formal safety performance examinations of existing or future roadways to all PAG member jurisdictions. RSAs are conducted by a multidisciplinary team and can be used at any phase of project development or well-after a project has been completed. RSAs, which are highly encouraged by FHWA, have proven to be an extremely effective tool for proactively improving the safety of roads and intersections.
- Annual Crash Data Analysis – Every year PAG collects law enforcement data compiled by ADOT to analyze crashes throughout the region. The analysis, which specifically includes cyclists and pedestrians, examines factors such as crash severity, crash frequency, cause of crash, time of day/light conditions, alcohol/drug involvement, condition of the road, etc. This information is used to target federal safety funds and to identify candidate locations for safety studies and RSAs.
- Annual Bicycle and Pedestrian Count – The annual Regional Bicycle and Pedestrian Count helps PAG track numbers and trends of bicycles and pedestrians over time, prioritize locations to improve, analyze crash data, and to raise awareness in the community about bicycle and pedestrian characteristics and trends.
- Transportation Alternatives Program – The Transportation Alternatives Program (TAP) authorized under MAP-21 provides funding for programs and projects defined as transportation alternatives, including on- and off-road pedestrian and bicycle facilities, infrastructure projects for improving non-driver access to public transportation and enhanced mobility, community improvement activities and environmental mitigation; recreational trail program projects, and safe routes to school projects. PAG helps the region refine, rank and prioritize projects applying for these funds during its annual call for projects.
- Public Service Announcements for the Pedestrian Safety Initiative – In order to increase safety awareness among drivers and pedestrians, PAG developed the "Walk Safe. DriveSafe." campaign. Messages are developed to target drivers and pedestrians most associated with local pedestrian and vehicle crash patterns.
- Bike HAWK – PAG partnered with the City of Tucson in the development of the BikeHAWK through PAG staff, resources, and traffic signal engineers Richard Nassi and Bob Hunt. The BikeHAWK has emerged as a national best practice and is now featured in FHWA bicycle and pedestrian training materials as a highlighted countermeasure.
- Tucson Bikeways Map – Pima Association of Governments has partnered with the City of Tucson, Pima County and the University of Arizona to create and print the Tucson Bikeways Map, a map focusing on low-stress routes for "interested but concerned" riders. The map, which folds up to the size of credit card, highlights bicycle facilities such as shared-use paths, bicycle boulevards and other routes that prioritize bicycle travel. These routes are typically perceived as more comfortable to new riders or riders that prefer to stay off larger roadways with higher speeds and traffic volumes. The map also shows parks, libraries, and signalized crossings that assist in getting across major roadways. It has been made available for free in bike shops and libraries around the region, and to incoming UA students.
- RTA Categories:
- 36 - Intersection Safety and Capacity Improvements – Intersection Safety and Capacity Upgrades (RTA Ballot No. 36) are part of the Safety Element of the RTA plan adopted by voters in May 2006. The sub-element for intersection upgrades was allocated $100 million, or 5 percent, of the project funding identified in the plan to improve regional mobility.
- 37 - Elderly and Pedestrian Safety – The RTA Plan provides $20 million to fund Elderly and Pedestrian Safety Improvements to address public safety concerns of pedestrians by targeting mobility impediments. Projects include making improvements to substandard handicap ramps at intersections, filling sidewalk gaps, adding safe landing areas to bus stops, installing crosswalks with high pedestrian volumes, and developing safe routes to schools.
- 41 - Greenways, Pathways, Bikeways, and Sidewalks – the RTA plan includes $60 million to fund projects that fill gaps in the sidewalk and provide shared-use and bike lane networks to create a bicycle and pedestrian-friendly transportation system for all users.
- Regional Pedestrian Plan – In 2014, PAG partnered with member jurisdictions and other interested parties to update the Regional Pedestrian Plan. The Plan provides detailed pedestrian crash data, looks at the inventory of existing pedestrian facilities on arterials, collectors, and other important roadways, and establishes a method for prioritizing needed pedestrian improvements. The plan also contains a toolbox of best practices which begins on page 64.(https://www.pagnet.org/documents/Pedestrian/PedPlan2014.pdf?page=64)
- Pedestrian Safety Training – As a result of Tucson being listed as a pedestrian safety focus city by the Federal Highway Administration (for having a pedestrian fatality rate that is above the national average), PAG hosted a two-day Designing for Pedestrian Safety course taught by national pedestrian safety experts. The workshop was attended by over 20 representatives of regional transportation and planning staffs.
- PAG’s Regional Traffic Signal Timing and Operations Program – This program provides traffic signal services that promote pedestrian and bicycle safety. The program has coordinated the review of over 1,000 traffic signals throughout the region and updated signal time plans to improve pedestrian safety and avoid unnecessary conflicts with vehicles at signalized intersections. Specific adjustments to the “Walk” signal times accommodate the pedestrian walk speed requirement of 3.5 feet per second as recommended in the 2009 Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). The program also has provided traffic signal design review for specialized pedestrian and bicycle signals such as the HAWK.
- Highway Safety Improvement Program – The Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) authorized under MAP-21 provides funding for programs and projects that have measureable impacts in reducing transportation fatalities and injuries. Approved projects have included bicycle and pedestrian safety features such as countdown pedestrian indicators at signalized intersections and HAWK crossings. PAG helps the region refine, rank and prioritize projects applying for these funds during its annual call-for-projects.
- Arizona Strategic Highway Safety Plan – PAG has coordinated local involvement in the update of the Arizona Strategic Highway Safety Plan. PAG has successfully incorporated the inclusion of bicycle safety and pedestrian safety as key focus areas of the plan. PAG also has identified effective bicycle safety and pedestrian strategies such as “bicycle boulevards,” HAWKs, BikeHAWKS, Safe Routes to School and targeted outreach campaigns that have been incorporated into the draft plan. The plan will serve as guidance in the allocation of HSIP funding throughout the state.
- PAG Strategic Transportation Safety Plan – PAG is currently conducting the first comprehensive Strategic Transportation Safety Plan (STSP) for the Tucson metropolitan region. The STSP will address the necessary steps and elements from a regional transportation planning perspective to reduce the risk of death and serious injury to all transportation users in the Tucson metropolitan region. PAG and its member agencies are developing a customized regional plan to address the issues and needs of the Tucson region, its jurisdictions and its transportation users. The plan will include bicycle safety and pedestrian safety as distinct safety emphasis areas and will identify effective strategies for addressing each.
- PAG Alt Modes Program – This program aims to increase alternative mode trips while also improving safety for these modes. PAG promotes transportation projects and program elements that add to the regional traveling community’s quality of life, improve the regional transportation system through reduced congestion, lower the number of crashes involving bicyclists and pedestrians, and have positive benefits on air quality, environment, livability and the individual health of regional residents and visitors. PAG assists in regional public education and outreach efforts to raise awareness and enthusiasm for bicycling and walking, and distributes safety items like bicycle helmets and front and rear lights to adults and children throughout the region.
- PAG Bicycle/Pedestrian Diversion Program – This program aims to provide education for bicyclists and pedestrians who receive citations from law enforcement by allowing them to pay a small fee to attend a three-hour safety course. The safety course addresses common infractions by bicyclists and pedestrians from the point of view of all road users, negative outcomes of unsafe behavior, community resources and more. Following completion of the course, attendees have their citation fines cleared. Bicyclists and pedestrians will only be able to attend the diversion course and have their fines cleared once each calendar year. The program is facilitated by an outside contractor and is managed by PAG. The program directly complements current enforcement efforts and is supported by local law enforcement.
- PAG Rideshare and Travel Demand Management Program - This program aims to reduce commuter traffic through assistance to area commuters in finding convenient, affordable and accessible transportation options. The program seeks to improve regional air quality and reduce traffic congestion through increased use, awareness and understanding of alternate modes of travel by assisting employers in Pima County and conducting direct outreach using various marketing and outreach strategies. The program includes an “On the Move” outreach campaign which incorporates neighborhood walking maps highlighting sidewalks, major street crossings, bike routes and bus stops. The “On the Move” efforts also have included bike rodeos and bike repair stations featuring safety education, neighborhood walks and formal walking audits with neighborhood activists and other residents. The overall program also distributes pedestrian guide materials produced by ADOT and Pima County DOT, and transit routing materials as part of its regular informational materials.
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